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B. Pharma Courses – 5 Things to know about the programme


[vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]Pharmacy education has evolved considerably over the years and more with the recent pandemic. Pharmacists are further in demand because they are medical professionals trained in preparing and dispensing prescription medications to patients. According to the United States Bureau of Labour Statistics, nearly 11,300 job openings is expected for pharmacist in the year 2020 and 2030. B. Pharma courses are in demand because they train and nurture students to become a part of the healthcare industry. Bachelor of Pharmacy, also popularly abbreviated as B.Pharma. If you have completed your senior secondary school in the science stream and are keen to build a career in the medical or healthcare industry, then a B.Pharma course can be the right choice.

Now that you have decided on earning your undergraduate degree in pharmacy, here are things you must know about the programme as a prospective student. 

B.Pharma Course: An Overview

B.Pharma is a four-year undergraduate degree programme structured in eight-semester coursework that primarily deals with the study of the field of medicine. Throughout the course, students are acquainted with the overall understanding of medications, the reaction of drugs and diseases in various situations, prescriptions, and drugs. 

5 Things to know about the B.Pharma course

  1. Eligibility criteria for the B. Pharma course

The eligibility criteria for a B.Pharamcy course in India vary from university to university. However, the most common requirement for admission in an undergraduate B.Pharma programme is that the candidate must have a minimum of 50% marks in higher secondary and senior secondary examinations, with physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, and English as mandatory subjects.

  1. B.Pharma course fee in India

The average annual fees for a B.Pharma course in India range from INR40,000 to INR 1,00,000. The fees are subject to differ for different universities. Therefore students must check the course fee structure for a better understanding of the financial side of the course. 

  1. B.Pharma syllabus and curriculum

B.Pharma courses are divided into eight-semester coursework that covers fundamental theoretical and practical subjects. The B.Pharma course covers a very vast syllabus. Here are some of the many subjects covered under this programme:

  • Pharmaceutical 
  • Human Anatomy and Physiology
  • Pharmaceutics Inorganic chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Pathophysiology
  • Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry
  • Environmental Sciences
  • Computer Applications in Pharmacy
  • Pharmaceutical Microbiology
  • Industrial Pharmacy
  • Pharmacology
  • Herbal Drug 

These subjects are introduced in the initial year, and the knowledge is developed over the course of the programme.

  1. Elective offered in B.Pharma course

Apart from the fundamental pharmaceutical subjects, the B.Pharma course allows students to choose electives such as Data Analytics, Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, and Design Thinking.

  1. Career prospects after the B.Pharma course

As you take the big step of your professional journey by pursuing a four-year B.Des course, it is important to learn about this course’s career prospects. Here are the most popular job roles offered to B.Pharma graduates:

  • Pharmacist
  • Medical Representative
  • Clinical Research Associate
  • Pharmacy Manager
  • Clinical Pharmacist

Apart from these job roles, B.Pharamcy graduates can work in the cosmetic, food, and manufacturing industries.

Now that you know of the many aspects of a B.Pharmacy course take the next step and apply for the programme now![/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]

Materials Engineering PDF VSSUT | ME PDF VSSUT

Materials Engineering PDF VSSUT – ME PDF VSSUT of Total Complete Notes

Please find the download links of Materials Engineering PDF VSSUT | ME PDF VSSUT are listed below:

Link: Complete Notes

Module – 1

Introduction of Materials Science and Engineering,

Materials Science,Materials Engineering,Structure,

Properties of solid materials may be grouped into six different categories,

Classification of Materials,Biomaterials ,Semiconductors ,

The Materials Selection Process,Elastic deformation in metals,

Plastic deformation in metals,Mechanism/Modes of plastic deformation in metals.

Link: Module – 1

Module – 2

Constitution of Alloys,Pure Metal,Compound or Intermediate Alloy Phase,

Intermetallic compounds,Electron or Hume Rothery phases ,

Laves phase,Sigma phase ,Metal carbides and nitrides ,

Substitutional Solid Solution,Empirical rules for the formation of substitutional solid solution ,

Interstitial Solid Solution,Phase Diagram,Components of a system,

Variables/Axis of phase diagrams,Degree of Freedom,Phase Rule,

Experimental Methods for Determination of Phase Diagram,Cooling curve,

Working with Phase Diagrams,Unary Phase Diagrams,

Binary Phase Diagrams,Isomorphous Phase Diagram,Relative Amounts of Each Phase,

Variations of Isomorphous System,Equilibrium Cooling,

Non Equilibrium Cooling,Eutectic Phase Diagram,

Microstructural Characteristics of Eutectic System,Application of Lever rule in Eutectic System.

Link: Module – 2

Module – 3

Heat Treatment,General heat treatment processes ,

Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) Diagrams,TTT diagram for Hypo eutectoid steel ,

TTT diagram for Hyper eutectoid steel,Transformation to Pearlite,

Transformation to Bainite, Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram ,

Full Annealing,Recrystallization Annealing ,Stress Relief Annealing ,

Spheroidizing,Normalizing ,Hardening ,Severity of Quench ,

Jominy test for Hardenability,Tempering ,Tempering of Plain Carbon Steels ,

Austempering,Surface Hardening ,Thermal Treatment ,

Flame Hardening,Induction Hardening,Laser Beam HardeningElectron Beam Hardening,

Thermal – Chemical Treatment,Post heat treatment after carburizing.

Link: Module – 3

Module – 4

Steel Vs cast iron,Classification of ferrous alloy ,Carbon steels are further classified into ,

Cast iron is classified into two types,Effect of alloying elements on steels,

Two types of alloying elements are there,Effect of alloying elements in tempering ,

Nickel steel,Chromium steel(5XXXseries),Nickel Chromium steel 3XXXseries,

Manganese steels (31xxx series),Stainless steels,Martensitic stainless steel,

Ferritic stainless steel,Austenitic stainless steels,Precipitation hardening stainless steel,

Selection of tool steels,Shock resistance tool steels (group G ),High speed tool steels.

Link: Module – 4

Advanced casting and welding Notes VSSUT | ACW Notes VSSUT

Advanced casting and welding Notes VSSUT – ACW Notes VSSUT of Total Complete Notes

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Advanced casting and welding Notes VSSUT – ACW Notes VSSUT

Module – 1

Casting processes

Classification, Metal mould casting processes, advanced casting processes,

investment casting, Rheocasting,  mould and core making materials and their characteristics

Technology of Selected casting Processes: Clay bonded, synthetic resin bonded,

inorganic material bonded mould and core making, sand additives,

mould coating, continuous casting process, centrifugal casting process

Link: Module – 1

Module – 2

Casting defects

inspection, diagnosis and rectification,

mechanization and automation in foundries, use of robots, casting design,

near net shape casting, pollution control, energy and waste management in foundries

Physics of welding arc, characteristics of arc, modes of metal transfer, welding fluxes,

electrode coating, classification of electrode, characteristics of welding power source,

pulsed and inverter type power source, power source for resistance welding, weldability

weldability tests, Weldability of cast iron, Plain carbon steel,

Determination of preheating temperature, Stainless steel, use of Scheffler’ s diagram.

Link: Module – 2

Module – 3

Heat flow in welding

significance, theory of heat flow, cooling rate determination,

selection of welding parameters based on heat flow analysis

residual stress and its measurement, types and control of distortion

Link: Module – 3

Module – 4

Analysis of fatigue of welded joint

fracture and toughness testing and its application on welded joint,

automated welded joint, microprocessor based of control resistance and arc welding,

quality assurance in welding, effects of welding fumes on environment.

Link: Module – 4


1. Principle of Metal Casting- Heine, R.W. Loper ,C. Philip and C.R.Rosenthal, McGraw Hill.

2. Principle of Metal Casting- P.L.Jain,TMH

3. Manufacturing Technology- P.N.Rao,TMH

4. Welding Engineering and Technology- R.S. Parmar Khanna publisher


1. Metallurgy of Welding Technology-D. Seferian, Chapman & Hall

2. Welding and Welding Technology- R.Little, TMH.

Analysis and Design of Algorithms PDF VSSUT | ADA PDF VSSUT

Analysis and Design of Algorithms PDF VSSUT – ADA PDF VSSUT of Total Complete Notes

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Analysis and Design of Algorithms Notes VSSUT – ADA Notes VSSUT

Module – 1

Algorithms and Complexity

orders, worst-case and average-case, amortized complexity

Basic Techniques,  divide & conquer, dynamic programming,

greedy method, backtracking, Asymptotic notation

Aggregate analysis,  Potential method, Master theorem

Substitution method, Algorithm and design technique

Matrix chain multiplication, Longest common sub-sequences (LCS)

Optimal binary search tree, Greedy algorithm

Huffman codes

Link: Module – 1

Module – 2

Branch and bound

randomization, Data Structures: heaps, search trees

union-find problems, Applications: sorting & searching, combinatorial

problems, Branch and bound, Randomization, Data Structure

Optimal substructure of a shortest path, Dijkstra’s algorithm

Use data to form a heap, remove highest priority item from heap (largest),

reform heap with remaining data

Link: Module – 2

Module – 3

Optimization problems

computational geometric problems, string matching

Graph Algorithms BFS and DFS, connected components

Line Segment Properties, Determining whether two line segments intersect

Graham’s scan, String Matching, Knuth-Morris-Pratt Algorithm

Graph Algorithms – BFS and DFS: Breadth-first search (BFS):

Determining whether consecutive segments turn left or right

Link: Module – 3

Module – 4

Spanning trees

shortest paths, MAX-flow, NP- completeness,  Approximation algorithms

Spanning tree: Maximum flow, The Ford – Fulkerson method

Ford-Fulkerson Algorithm: Cuts of flow network:

NP-complete (polynomial time algorithm):

Polynomial time reduction algorithm: Polynomial time reduction algorithm:

Approximation algorithms, Vertex cover problem.

String – matching automata, Rabin – Karp Algorithm

Link: Module – 4

Text Book:

1. Introduction to Algorithms, 2/e ,T.H.Cormen,C.E.Leiserson, R.L.Rivest and C.Stein,

PHI Pvt. Ltd. / Pearson Education

Reference Books:

1. Algorithm Design: Foundations, Analysis and Internet examples,

M.T.Goodrich and R.Tomassia, John Wiley and sons.

2. Fundamentals of Computer Algorithms, Ellis Horowitz,

Satraj Sahni and Rajasekharam, Galgotia Publications Pvt. Ltd.

Artificial Intelligence PDF VSSUT | AI PDF VSSUT

Artificial Intelligence PDF VSSUT – AI PDF VSSUT of Total Complete Notes

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Artificial Intelligence Notes VSSUT – AI Notes VSSUT

Module – 1

Formalized symbolic logic

Propositional logic-first order predicate logic

wff conversion to clausal form, inference rules

the resolution principle, Dealing with inconsistencies and uncertainties, fuzzy logic

Importance of AI, Game Playing, Speech Recognition, Understanding Natural Language

Computer Vision, Expert Systems, Uniformed or Blind search

Link: Module – 1

Module – 2

Probabilistic Reasoning Structured knowledge

graphs, frames and related structures

Knowledge organization and manipulation

Probabilistic Reasoning, Bayesian probabilistic inference

Application Of Bayes Therom, Definition and importance of knowledge

Knowledge Based Systems  ,Representation of knowledge

Knowledge Organization ,Knowledge Manipulation

Link: Module – 2

Module – 3

Matching Techniques

Knowledge organizations, Management, Structures used in Matching

Measure for Matching, Matching like Patterns

Matching Sets and Bags, Matching Sets and Bags, Partial Matching

Partial Matching, The RETE matching algorithm

Knowledge Organization and Management, Indexing and retrieval techniques

Indexed Organization, Conceptual Indexing

Integrating knowledge and memory,  Memory organization system

HAM, a model of memory, Memory Organization with E-MOPs

Link: Module – 3

Module – 4

Natural Language processing

Pattern recognition, Expert systems,  Overview of linguistics

Morphological Analysis, BNF, Grammars and Languages

Basic parsing techniques, Augmented Transition Networks, Chart Parsing

Expert System Architecture, Characteristics Features of Expert Systems

Rules for Knowledge Representation, Rule-Based Systems

Forward Chaining, Conflict Resolution, Meta Rules, Backward Chaining

Comparing Forward and Backward Chaining,  Rule-Based Expert Systems

Architecture of an Expert System, Knowledge Engineering

CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System)

Backward Chaining in Rule-Based Expert Systems

Link: Module – 4

Text Book:

1. Artificial Intelligence, Dan W Patterson, Prentice Hall of India (1999) Chapter-

4, 5,7,9,10,11,12,13,15.

Reference Books:

1. Artificial Intelligence, Nils J.Nilsson, ELSEVIER.

2. E.Rich and K.Knight, Artificial Intelligence, – TMH

Automation and Numerical Control Machines Notes VSSUT | ANCM Notes VSSUT

Automation and Numerical Control Machines Notes VSSUT – ANCM Notes VSSUT of Total Complete Notes

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Automation and Numerical Control Machines Notes VSSUT – ANCM Notes VSSUT

Module – 1




Power to accomplish the automated process, Program of Instructions

Control System, Safety Monitoring, Maintenance and Repair Diagnostics






Link: Module – 1


Module – 2






SOFTWARE FOR GRAPHIC SYSTEM,Design Review and Evaluation

  Functions of a graphics package, Automated Drafting

Constructing the geometry, Transformations,  Wireframe model versus solid model

Tool and fixture design for manufacturing, Computer aided process planning

Link: Module – 2


Module – 3






Manual Part Programming, Computer – assisted Part Programming

NC Part Programming Languages, APT Language

 COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL, Problems with conventional NC

Configuration of CNC System,  Configuration of CNC System

Link: Module – 3


Module – 4

Material Handling

Functions of Material Handling THE NC PROCEDURE

Factors to be considered in Material Handling Probems

 Principles of Material Handling,  Material Handling Devices

Group Technology (GT), Part Family Formation

Parts Classification and Coding,  Clustering Analysis

Benefits of Group Technology, Benefits of Group Technology

Approaches to Process Planning, Steps Involved in CAPP,

Approaches to Computer – Aided Process Planning

Link: Module – 4



Please find the download links of BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PDF VSSUT | BEE PDF VSSUT are listed below:

Link: Complete Notes

Module – 1

DC Networks

Kirchhoff’s laws, node and mesh analysis

Delta-star and star – delta transformations,  Superposition,

Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorem. Transients in RL, R-C and R-L-C circuits with DC Excitation,

Single Phase AC Circuits: Single phase EMF generation,

average and effective values of sinusoids, j operations, complex representation of impedances,

Link: Module – 1

Module – 2

Magnetic Circuits

B-H Curve, Hysteresis, Permeability and reluctance

solution of simple magnetic circuits,  Hysteresis and Eddy current losses.

DC Generator: Different types, Principle of Operation of DC generator,

EMF equation, methods of excitation,  DC Motor: Back e.m.f.,

speed and torque of a DC Motor, Conditions for maximum Power.

Speed control of DC shunt motor, Transformers

Link: Module – 2

Module – 3

Three phase Induction Motor

Construction and principle of operation, Synchronous Machines

Sliptorque characteristics, Synchronous Machines:

Construction & principle of operation of Synchronous generator and motor.

EMF equation, Voltage regulation, Applications and starting of Synchronous motor

Introduction to single-phase induction Motor.

Link: Module – 3

Module – 4

Measuring Instruments

DC PMMC instruments, Extension of range by shunts and multipliers

Moving iron ammeters and voltmeters,  Dynamometer type Watt meters,

Induction type Energy Meter.  Power supply systems: Principle of generation – thermal,

hydel and nuclear. Transmission and distribution of electric energy

Introduction to Electric Heating & Welding.

Link: Module – 4


1. Edward Hughes (revised by Ian McKenzie Smith). “Electrical & Electronics
Technology” Pearson Education Limited. Indian Reprint 2002.


1. H.Cotton, “Advanced Electrical Technology”, CBS Publishers, New Delhi, 7th Edition.
2. C.L. Wadhwa, “Electrical Engineering”, New Age International Publishers.
3. D.Kulshreshtha, “ Basic Electrical Engineering” TMH
4. S. Parker Smith: “Problems in Electrical Engineering” Asia Publications

Materials Engineering & Metallurgy Notes VSSUT | MEM Notes VSSUT

Materials Engineering & Metallurgy Notes VSSUT – MEM Notes VSSUT of Total Complete Notes

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Link: Complete Notes

Module – 1

Introduction of Materials Science and Engineering,Materials Science,Materials Engineering ,

Structure,Property,Properties of solid materials may be grouped into six different categories,

Classification of Materials, Metals,Ceramics ,Polymers ,Properties,

Composites, Advance Materials ,Biomaterials ,Semiconductors ,The Materials Selection Process,

Defects in Solids, Point Defects in Metals ,Self-Interstitials,Point Defects in Ceramics,

Equilibrium number of vacancies,Equilibrium Concentration,Effect of point imperfections ,

Line Imperfections,Edge dislocation ,Screw dislocation,Mixed dislocations ,Surface imperfections ,

Effect on property, Diffusion in solids ,Diffusion Mechanisms ,Factors affecting Diffusion ,

Mechanisms/modes of plastic deformation,Plastic deformation by dislocation Motion (SLIP),

Slip in Single Crystal,Plastic deformation by Twin,Bauschinger effect,Work Hardening .

Link: Module – 1

Module – 2&3

Solidification,Driving Force ,Homogeneous Nucleation ,Geometry of Solidification ,

Phase Diagram,Components of a system ,Phase transformation ,Solubility Limit ,

Microstructure,Phase diagram ,Variables/Axis of phase diagrams ,System Components ,

Experimental Methods,Thermal Analysis,Metallographic Methods,X-ray diffraction,

Gibbs Phase Rule,Degrees of Freedom,Variables in a phase diagram ,

Unary Phase Diagram,Binary Phase Diagram ,Isomorphous Phase Diagram,

Cooling curves: Isomorphous system,Isomorphous Phase Diagram ,

Tie line and Lever rule,Chemical Composition of Phases,Relative Amounts of Each Phase,

Tie line and Lever rule,Variations of Isomorphous System ,Variations of Isomorphous System,

Equilibrium Cooling,Non Equilibrium Cooling – Coring,Eutectic Phase Diagram ,

Microstructural Characteristics of Eutectic System,Application of Lever rule in Eutectic System ,

Peritectic Phase Diagram,Monotectic Phase Diagram ,The Eutectoid Reaction ,

The Peritectoid Reaction,Monotectoid Reaction : Al-Zn Phase Diagram ,Syntectic Reaction : Ga – I Phase Diagram ,

Order-disorder Transformations,Allotropic Transformations in Iron ,Iron – Cementite Phase Diagram .

Link: Module – 2&3

Module – 4

Heat Treatment,General heat treatment processes,Annealing ,Full Annealing ,

Recrystallization Annealing,Stress Relief Annealing,Spheroidizing ,

Jominy test for Hardenability,Tempering of Plain Carbon Steels,Martempering ,

Surface Hardening,Carburizing,Liquid carburizing ,Pack carburizing ,Heat treatment after carburizing ,

Cyaniding and Carbonitriding,Thermal Energy Treatments ,Induction Hardening ,

Laser Hardening,Electron Beam (EB) Hardening .

Link: Module – 4

Mathematics – I Notes VSSUT | M-I Notes VSSUT

Mathematics – I Notes VSSUT – M-I Notes VSSUT of Total Complete Notes

Please find the download links of Mathematics – I Notes VSSUT | M-I Notes VSSUT are listed below:

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Module – 1

Limit of function,Left hand and right hand limits,

Limit of a function by sequential approach,Continuity,Types of discontinuities,

Differentiability of functions,Left and right derivative,Mean Value Theorems,

On the basis of a certin amount of knowledge about the derivative of a function, mean value
theorems enable us to get some information about the function itself.

Link: Module – 1

Module – 2

Linear Algebra, Matrix,Symmetric and Skew symmetric, Equal matrix,

Scalar Multiplication,Matrix multiplication,Some Properties of matrix multiplication,

Special Matrices,Trangular Matrices,Upper and Lower triangular matrices ,

Diagonal matrices,diagonal matrices,Transpose of a product,

Inner product of vectors,Linear system of equations, Gauss Elimination,

Matrix form of linear equation,Gauss Elimination Method,

Rank of a matrix, Linear Independence,Linear Independence and Dependence ,

Rank of a Matrix,Vector spaces and subspaces,

Inverse of a matrix, Gauss Jordan Elimination.

Link: Module – 2

Module – 3

First order differential equation,Solution of a differential equation,

Verification of solution,Separable differential equation,

Exact differential equations and Integrating Factor,Integrating Factors,

Linear Differential equation, Bernoulli Equation,Linear Differential Equations of second and
higher order,

A differential equation is an equation involving derivatives of one
or more dependent variable with respect to one or more independent variable,

Second order Homogeneous Equations with constant coefficients,Euler-Cauchy Equation,

Solution by undetermined coefficients,Rules for the method od undetermined coefficients,

Modification Rule,Solution by variation of parameters.

Link: Module – 3

Module – 4

Series solution of Differential Equations,Home Work,Theory of Power-series Method;

Radius of Convergence,Radius of Convergence or Circle of Convergence,

Legendre’s Equation, Legendre Polynomials, Frobenious Method, Bessel’s Equation, Bessel’s functions,Gamma Function.

Link: Module – 4

Erwin Kreyszig, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, John Wiley and Sons,
Inc, New York, 2006.
J. Sinha Roy and S.Padhy, A course on Ordinary and partial differential equations,
Kalyani Publishers, 2010.

Basic Electronics PDF VSSUT | BE Notes VSSUT

Basic Electronics PDF VSSUT – BE Notes VSSUT of Total Complete Notes

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Module – 1

Introduction to Electronics

Signals, frequency Spectrum of Signals, Analog and Digital Signals

Linear Wave Shaping Circuits,  RC LPF, Integrator, RC HPF, Differentiator.

Properties of Semiconductors: Intrinsic, Extrinsic Semiconductors,

Current Flow in Semiconductors, Diodes: p-n junction theory,

Current-Voltage characteristics, Analysis of Diode circuits,

Rectifiers, Clippers, Clampers, Special diodes

Link: Module – 1


Module – 2

Bipolar junction Transistor (BJTs):

Physical Structures & Modes of Operation, Transistor Characteristics

DC analysis,  Introduction to Small Signal Analysis, Transistor as an amplifier,

The RC coupled amplifier, Introduction to Power Amplifiers, Transistor as switch.

Field Effect Transistors (FETs): Physical Structures & Modes of Operation of MOSFETs,

MOSFET Characteristics, DC Analysis. Feedback Amplifiers & Oscillators:

General Principles, Different types of feedback amplifier (block diagram only),

Properties of Negative Feedback, Barkhausen criteria for Oscillation

Operational Amplifiers (OP-Amps): Ideal OP-AMP, Inverting Amplifier,

Non-Inverting Amplifier. Adder, Subtractor, Integrator, Differentiator

Link: Module – 2


Module – 3

Digital Fundamentals

Binary Numbers, Signed-binary numbers

Decimal-to-Binary & Binary – to Decimal Conversion,  Binary Addition,

Subtraction, Multiplication and Division, Hexadecimal Number Systems,

Logic Gates, Boolean Algebra, De Morgan’s Theorems, Laws of Boolean Algebra,

Basics of Flip flops, Shift Resistors, Counters

Link: Module – 3


Module – 4

Introduction to Electronic Instruments

CRO, Multimeter, Signal Generators

Principles of Communication, Fundamentals of AM & FM, Transmitters & Receivers

Link: Module – 4



1. Microelectronics Circuits, A.S Sedra, K.C. Smith, Oxford University Press.

Selected portions from chapters 1to 5, 8, 13.

2. Electronics Fundamentals and Applications, D Chattopadhyay and P.C. Rakshit,

New Age International Publications. Selected portions from chapters 4 to 14, 16 to 20.


1. Integrated Electronics, Millman and Halkias, Mc.Graw Hill Publications.

2. Electronic Devices & Circuit Theory, R.L Boylestad and L. Nashelsky, Pearson Education